The name “Kremlin” was given to a fortified complex found in various historic Russian cities. There are numerous kremlins in Russia that managed to survive up to this day: the Novgorod Kremlin, the Kazan Kremlin, the Pskov Kremlin, the Kolomna Kremlin. But only one Kremlin speaks for itself — the world-famous Moscow Kremlin in the capital of the Russian Federation.
It’s the largest fortress in Europe preserved and functioning up to this day. The Kremlin is a major tourist attraction, a Russian president’s residence, and Russia’s most famous landmark.
The first settlements on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin were established during the Bronze Age in 2000 BC, but the first fortifications appeared here much later in 1156. A 850-meter long wooden fortification with a total area of about 3 hectares was surrounded by a 16-18-meter long and 5-meter deep moat.
During the Mongol-Tatar invasion, the Kremlin was destroyed and then rebuilt. But only in the middle of the 14th century, during the rule of the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy, the Kremlin’s wooden walls and towers were replaced by structures from local white stone. It was from that moment on that Moscow was referred to as “Moscow made of white stone” (“Moskva belokamennaya”).
Brick was chosen as a base material for the construction. The central part of the Kremlin is occupied by Cathedral Square with the Cathedral of the Annunciation, the Cathedral of the Dormition, the Hall of Facets, and the Cathedral of the Archangel, the burial place of Russian princes and kings, and the Ivan the Great Bell Tower.
Another major reconstruction of the Kremlin took place at the turn of the 16th century, and since then its appearance remained almost unchanged, except for the color.
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